ㆍAttach #1 LPL_LM190E03-TN.pdf (266KB)

ㆍAttach #2

LPL_LM190E05-IPS.pdf (370KB)
Types of Panels
TN (Twisted Nematic)
Without Overdrive, this type of panel offers the fastest pixel response time. This does however come at the expensive of viewing angles and color fidelity. Out of all TFT-LCD panels, the TN type has the lowest contrast. It is also a 6-bit color depth panel, meaning dithering or frame rate control (FRC) must be employed to reach close to a full 8-bit depth. Pixels in their active state on a TN are black, while in their inactive, white.

(P-)MVA ({Premium} Multidomain Vertical Alignment)
The liquid crystal (LC) cells on MVA panels are in their active state white, and in inactive black and are separated into four domains. This slightly improves viewing angle over TN-type displays (MVAs provide ~45 degrees). MVA panels also provide a high contrast ratio. Grayscale inversion is minimal on these displays. Response time is the second slowest in the industry without ODCs. MVAs and all derivatives hide details at a perpendicular viewing angle due to their multidomain nature. Cells are never perfectly vertical or horizontal in an MVA, but they can be very close.

PVA (Patterned Vertical Alignment)
Developed by Samsung, PVA is very similar to MVA. Viewing angles are very similar and inversion is minimal at wide viewing angles. Samsung is not clear on the true color depth of these panels. These panels deliver the slowest response time. Cells are vertical when light is blocked, and horizontal when light is let through.

S-PVA (Super Patterned Vertical Alignment)
These types of panels deliver a full 8-bit color depth and have a structure split into eight domains.
At wide viewing angles, they have less color shift and a lower black level than MVAs. According to Samsung, they have a higher contrast ratio and better response time than MVAs as well.

S-MVA (Super Multidomain Vertical Alignment)
Likely similar to P-MVA from AU Optronics, Chi Mei Optoelectronics has developed the S-MVA type of panel. These also include multidomain, vertically-aligned liquid crystals so that the cells stay in the same shape at different positions, increasing brightness at wide viewing angles. According to CMO, S-MVA improves viewing angles from conventional MVA types to 80 degrees in all angles. Like other types of panels, response time has gradually improved on these as well.

IPS (In-Plane Switching)
The IPS panel was pioneered by Hitachi to fix the problems that plague the VA and TN types. Like TN, most IPSes contain only a single domain, although DD-IPS (dual domain IPS) does exist. This technology sports the least distortion at wide viewing angles. Two transistors per each pixel are ded, so brighter backlighting is crucial and power consumption is higher than competing nologies, but response time benefits greatly from this. Color depth varies. One disadvantage is that a purple-black is now introduced in black colors at different viewing angles.

S-IPS (Super In-Plane Switching)
LG Philips LCD improved on IPS with their S-IPS technology. These offer a lower black level, higher contrast ratio, lower response time, and a wider viewing angle than traditional IPS technology. Color depth on S-IPS panels is 8-bit. The purple-black tinting still applies to wide viewing angles, but orange and red hues are greatly reduced versus other technologies at wider viewing angles.

AS-IPS (Advanced/Enhanced Super In-Plane Switching)
These type of panels are LG Philips LCD's third generation of IPS technology. This is mainly just a wieldy moniker for improvements in the front-end driving electronics, including ODC to reduce response time, and a dynamic contrast ratio technology, raising contrast up to 1600:1. The diagonal viewing angle is also increased to 178 degrees, from 170 on S-IPS panels. AS-IPS panels very often include much brighter backlights than S-IPS types.

A-MVA (Advanced Multidomain Vertical Alignment)
This is a new panel from AU Optronics promising contrast ratio and viewing angle performance comparable to Samsung's 8-domain S-PVA panels. These should be capable of true 8-bit color.
Still, it is unknown if ODC will force them to dither.